Yale University has completed construction of a new ultra-green buildingâ€”designed to use 50 percent less energy than a comparably sized modern buildingâ€”for its School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (F&ES). Kroon Hall achieves its remarkable energy savings from a host of design elements and technical strategies molded to fit the buildingâ€™s New England weather and climate.
Kroon Hall is named in honor of benefactor Richard Kroon (`64) and Mary Jane Kroon.
â€śYaleâ€™s most sustainable building to date reflects the Schoolâ€™s mission and the intellectual passion of its faculty and students,â€ť said Yale President Richard C. Levin. â€śIt is an extraordinary design, and we hope its energy-saving concepts will be emulated widely and inspire others to advance green building even further.â€ť
All photographs by Morley Von Sternberg
The new $33,500,000 home for F&ES is expected to achieve a platinum rating in the green-building certification program, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). Design architect is Hopkins Architects of Great Britain, and executive architect is the Connecticut-based Centerbrook Architects and Planners. â€śMore than a decade ago, the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies set out to achieve an unconventionalâ€”even audaciousâ€”agenda, focused on building social capital, breaking with the past, and speaking to the future of environmentalism,â€ť said F&ES Dean Gus Speth. â€śWe wanted a healthy place to study and work, but also wanted to bridge the gap between nature and people even in the middle of the city.
We have achieved that with this very special place. Our thanks go to Deputy Dean Alan Brewster and Professor Stephen Kellert. Their inspired leadership and hard work made possible a new home for the School that expresses in physical form our best traditions, values, and aspirations.â€ť
The building, located in the area of the University known as â€śScience Hill,â€ť is named for the family of benefactor and Yale College alumnus Richard Kroon. Providing 58,200 square feet of space, it is 57 feet wide and 218 feet long. With its high barrel-vaulted ends, simple lines, and curved rooftop, Kroon is a modernist blend of cathedral nave and Connecticut barn.
â€śKroon Hall is on course to be among the greenest buildings in the United States,â€ť said Hopkins Director Michael Taylor. â€śTrue sustainability, however, is about more than improved quantitative performance. We have striven to create a piece of contemporary architecture that belongs in the context of the historic Yale campus. We think it will encourage interaction among its occupants and stand up to several generations of intense use. Using natural materials, such as Briar Hill Stone and red oak from the Universityâ€™s own sustainably harvested forests, we have tried to create a building that is warm in character, a place where the School will instantly feel at home. Seeing how the faculty, staff, and students have immediately adopted the building is very satisfying.â€ť
The buildingâ€™s tall, thin shape and east-west orientation provide most of the heating and cooling. The lowest floor is set into a hillside, with only its south side exposed, providing thermal insulation, minimizing northern exposure, and increasing the amount of natural light that enters the building from adjacent courtyards.
The long south facade maximizes solar gain during the winter, and Douglas fir louvers covering glass facades on the east and west ends keep out unwanted heat and glare. The buildingâ€™s shape, combined with the glass facades, enables daylight to provide much of the interiorâ€™s illumination. Light and occupancy sensors dim artificial lighting when it is not needed.
Half of Kroon Hallâ€™s red oak panelingâ€”15,000 board feetâ€”came from the 7,840-acre Yale-Myers Forest in northern Connecticut, which is managed by the School and certified by the Forest Stewardship Council and the Sustainable Forestry Initiative. Kroonâ€™s pale yellow exterior, composed of sandstone from Ohio, matches that of other Yale buildings.
A 100-kilowatt rooftop array of photovoltaic panels will provide about 25 percent of the electricity for the building. Heating and cooling is achieved by heat pumps rather than conventional boilers and chillers; four 1,500-foot-deep wells use groundwater to transfer heat between the heat pumps and the earth. Four solar panels embedded in the southern faĂ§ade provide the building with hot water. Renewable Energy Certificates will be purchased to provide the additional electricity needed for the building, reducing to zero the greenhouse gas emissions from Kroon Hallâ€™s operation. The estimate of Kroon Hallâ€™s energy use compared to a typical modern building is based on standards set by the American Association of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Exposed concrete walls and ceilings provide thermal stability by retaining heat in winter and cooling in summer. Fifty percent of the concrete mix is blast slag, a postindustrial recycled material. Instead of air being forced through overhead ducts, an energy-saving displacement ventilation system moves warm and cool air through an air plenum and multiple diffusers in elevated floors. Low-velocity fans in the basement keep the air circulating throughout the building.
In winter, the ventilation system transfers the heat from exhaust to incoming fresh air. In summer, it also transfers temperature, but first sprays water on the exhaust to help further reduce its temperature before transferring the cool from the exhaust to incoming air.
In mild weather, Kroonâ€™s occupants assist in the ventilation by opening windows in response to an electronic, color-coded prompt system.
A rainwater-harvesting system channels water from the roof and grounds to a garden in the south courtyard, where aquatic plants filter out sediment and contaminants. The grey water, held in underground storage tanks, is then pumped back into Kroon for flushing toilets and is used for irrigation. The system is expected to save more than 500,000 gallons of potable city water annually and to reduce the burden on city sewers by lessening the amount of storm runoff. A single driveway brings all vehicle traffic into a service node beneath the south courtyard, centralizing all pickups for trash and recycling and deliveries for the southwest corner of Science Hill.
The buildingâ€™s north and south courtyards add greatly to Kroon Hallâ€™s attractive environment for work and study. Centerbrook architect Mark Simon said the courtyards are almost as important as the building itself in creating a community from disparate buildings on Science Hill. â€śThe courtyards are quintessentially Yale,â€ť said Simon. â€śWe wanted to create great outdoor spaces where people want to go. For the first time in a century, people passing through the arch at Osborn Memorial Laboratories have a destination.â€ť The south courtyard is a raised platform, with a green roof of soil one-foot deep. Olin Partnership of Philadelphia landscaped the courtyards with 25 varieties of native plantings. In 2005, President Levin set a goal of a 43 percent reduction in Yaleâ€™s greenhouse gas emissions within 15 years. The University is making progress toward its goal through green construction such as Kroon Hall, campus-wide conservation measures, and renewable energy projects.
Plans - Sections - Elevations
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
The Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies is a professional and graduate school that offers masterâ€™s degrees in environmental management, environmental science, forestry, and forest science, as well as a doctoral program, and serves as a locus for research on local, regional, and global environmental issues. The school, established in 1901, provides a broad-gauged educational experience that equips its graduates to assume influential roles in government, business, nongovernmental organizations, public and international affairs, journalism, research, and education.
Project Name and Location: Kroon Hall, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Client: Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Design Architect: Hopkins Architects London, United Kingdom www.hopkins.co.uk
Executive Architect: Centerbrook Architects and Planners, Centerbrook, Connecticut, www.centerbrook.com
Structural Engineers, Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Protection Engineers: Arup, London, United Kingdom, New York, New York www.arup.com
Sustainable Design: atelier ten, London, United Kingdom and New York, New York www.atelierten.com
Landscape Architect: Olin Partnership, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania www.olinptr.com
Civil Engineering and Stormwater Management: Nitsch Engineering, Inc. Boston, Massachusetts www.nitscheng.com
Geothermal Engineers: Haley and Aldrich East Hartford, Connecticut www.haleyaldrich.com
FaĂ§ade Engineering/ Thermal Performance: Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. Waltham, Massachusetts
Materials Handling (Service Node): SEA Consultants, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts
Construction Manager: Turner Construction Co., Inc., Milford, Connecticut www.tcco.com